For hundreds of years people practiced ritual magic, an elaborate art designed to summon spirits. But who were these magicians during the medieval period? And how was this magic supposed to work? ———————— References and further reading:
Bulman, Jan. "Notice of the Liber juratus in Early Fourteenth-century France." Societas Magica Newsletter 14 (Fall 2005): 4, 6. https://societasmagica.org/userfiles/files/Newsletters/docs/SMN_Fall_2005_Issue_14.pdf
Falgairolle, Edmond. Un envoûtement en Gévaudan en l'année 1347. Nîmes: Catélan, 1892. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5783848d/f45.image.texteImage
Fanger, Claire. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998.
Kieckhefer, Richard. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer’s Manual of the Fifteenth Century. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997.
Klaassen, Frank. The Transformations of Magic: Illicit Learned Magic in the Later Middle Ages and Renaissance. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2013.
Láng, Benedek. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008.
Page, Sophie. Magic in the Cloister: Pious Motives, Illicit Interests, and Occult Approaches to the Medieval Universe. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2013.
The Sworn Book of Honorius: Liber Iuratus Honorii. Translated with Commentary by Joseph H. Peterson. Lake Worth, Florida: Ibis Press, 2016.
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