The dominant paradigm of natural language processing consists of large-scale pre-training on general domain data and adaptation to particular tasks or domains. As we pre-train larger models, conventional fine-tuning, which retrains all model parameters, becomes less feasible. Using GPT-3 175B as an example, deploying many independent instances of fine-tuned models, each with 175B parameters, is extremely expensive. We propose Low-Rank Adaptation, or LoRA, which freezes the pre-trained model weights and injects trainable rank decomposition matrices into each layer of the Transformer architecture, greatly reducing the number of trainable parameters for downstream tasks. For GPT-3, LoRA can reduce the number of trainable parameters by 10,000 times and the computation hardware requirement by 3 times compared to full fine-tuning. LoRA performs on-par or better than fine-tuning in model quality on both GPT-3 and GPT-2, despite having fewer trainable parameters, a higher training throughput, and no additional inference latency. We also provide an empirical investigation into rank-deficiency in language model adaptations, which sheds light on the efficacy of LoRA. We release our implementation in GPT-2 at https://github.com/microsoft/LoRA.
2021: Edward J. Hu, Yelong Shen, Phillip Wallis, Zeyuan Allen-Zhu, Yuanzhi Li, Shean Wang, Weizhu Chen