The period in which Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ruled the early Arab empire (685-705) was an important moment in the cementing of a unique Muslim identity. Among the many significant actions taken at this time was the establishment of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
Sources and Additional Readings:
The History of al-Tabari
The First Dynasty of Islam by G.R. Hawting
The Venture of Islam by Marshall G.S. Hodgson The Early Islamic Conquests by Fred M. Donner