Gen. Gage retreats with his regulars into Boston in the summer of 1774. Patriots take control of all of the rest of Massachusetts. They form their own government, independent of royal authority. The Provincial Congress organizes a militia army, develops minutemen as a rapid reaction force, and names generals, led by Artemas Ward, for its independent army.
The Congress also organizes logistics and creates a civilian Committee of Safety to run its military. One of the Committee members, Benjamin Church turns out to be a spy for General Gage, giving Gage an open window into all the Patriot planning and preparation for war.